Typst has special syntax and library functions to typeset mathematical formulas. Math formulas can be displayed inline with text or as separate blocks. They will be typeset into their own block if they start and end with at least one space (e.g. $ x^2 $).

In math, single letters are always displayed as is. Multiple letters, however, are interpreted as variables and functions. To display multiple letters verbatim, you can place them into quotes and to access single letter variables, you can use the hashtag syntax.

$ A = pi r^2 $
$ "area" = pi dot "radius"^2 $
$ cal(A) :=
    { x in RR | x "is natural" } $
#let x = 5
$ #x < 17 $

Math mode makes a wide selection of symbols like pi, dot, or RR available. Many mathematical symbols are available in different variants. You can select between different variants by applying modifiers to the symbol. Typst further recognizes a number of shorthand sequences like => that approximate a symbol. When such a shorthand exists, the symbol's documentation lists it.

$ x < y => x gt.eq.not y $

Formulas can also contain line breaks. Each line can contain one or multiple alignment points (&) which are then aligned.

$ sum_(k=0)^n k
    &= 1 + ... + n \
    &= (n(n+1)) / 2 $

Math mode supports special function calls without the hashtag prefix. In these "math calls", the argument list works a little differently than in code:

$ frac(a^2, 2) $
$ vec(1, 2, delim: "[") $
$ mat(1, 2; 3, 4) $
$ lim_x =
    op("lim", limits: #true)_x $

To write a verbatim comma or semicolon in a math call, escape it with a backslash. The colon on the other hand is only recognized in a special way if directly preceded by an identifier, so to display it verbatim in those cases, you can just insert a space before it.

Functions calls preceded by a hashtag are normal code function calls and not affected by these rules.

All math functions are part of the math module, which is available by default in equations. Outside of equations, they can be accessed with the math. prefix. For example, to set the font used for equations, write:

#show math.equation: set text(font: "Fira Math")
$ sum_(i in NN) 1 + i $